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    資料
    有效數字法的應用技巧-2019年浙江公務員考試行測技巧
    http://www.hrbjintong.com       2019-03-28      來源:浙江公務員考試網
    【字體: 】              

      在我們歷年的公務員考試中對于資料分析的考察,越來越注重考生對于材料和題干的理解,對于計算能力要求并不高,但是作為考生,面對資料分析中的大數據運算,想要在最短的時間內選出最準確的答案,還是需要一定的估算技巧的,浙江公務員考試網在此為大家介紹一下有效數字法的應用。


      一、加減法運算中有效數字法的應用


      根據計算結果的有效位數,判斷需要取幾位有效數字參與運算,即確定計算位和觀察位(一般計算結果保留3位有效數字)


      1.判斷參與運算的數據的數量級是否一致


      2.預估結果,是否需要進位或退位


      3.確定計算位和觀察位


      例:215.38+184.25,計算位是215和184,觀察位是3和2。


      (一)加法的取舍原則:(一般計算結果保留3位有效數字)


      1.觀察位相加<5時,直接取計算位相加;例:123.1+302.2≈123+302


      2.觀察位相加≥5且<15時,計算位加1;例:123.5+302.6≈124+302


      3.觀察位相加≥15且<25時,計算位加2;例:123.8+302.9≈125+302


      4.以此類推。


      (二)減法的取舍原則:(一般計算結果保留3位有效數字)


      1.觀察位相差≤5時,直接取計算位相減;例:456.3-345.1≈456-345


      2.觀察位相差>5時,一進一舍:觀察位大的數字,其計算位加1;觀察位小的數字,計算位不變。例:456.9-345.2≈457-345


      二、乘法運算中有效數字法的運用:


      根據列式,取前兩位有效數字即計算位,觀察第三位有效數字即觀察位,不需考慮小數點。


      1.第3位有效數字均為0/1/2時,直接取前兩位有效數字運算,即第三位有效數字全舍; 例:48.1×18.2≈48×18


      2.第3位有效數字均為8/9時,第三位有效數字全進1位;例:48.8×18.9≈49×19


      3.第3位有效數字為其他情況時,一進一舍:前三位有效數字小的數據,觀察位四舍五入;前三位有效數字大的數據,觀察位反向取舍。例:48.3×18.9≈48×19


      三、應用:


      1.據國家統計局公布的數據統計顯示,2012年第一產業增加值35477億元,包括農林牧漁服務業,比上年實際增長4.2%。


      問:如果按2012年的增長率,第一產業在2013年可實現增加值多少億元?


      A.36967 B.37605 C.40514 D.50377


      解析:根據末期值=初期值×(1+年均增長率)可得,本題的列式為35477×(1+4.2%)≈36×1.0,最接近A選項,選A。


      2.1980年及以后出生的新生代農民工12528萬人,占農民工總量的46.6%,占1980年及以后出生的農村從業勞動力的比重為65.5%。新生代農民工中,初中以下文化程度僅占6.1%,初中占60.6%,高中占20.5%,大專及以上文化程度占12.8%。


      問:2013年新生代農民工中,具有初中及以上文化程度的人員約為多少萬人?


      A.7591 B.9433 C.11764 D.16136


      解析:根據新生代農民工12528萬人,初中以下文化程度占6.1%,可得本題列式為12528×(1—6.1%)=12528×0.939≈12×94=1128,最接近C項,選C。


      以上就是小編為大家介紹的快速估算的技巧之有效數字法,希望大家能準確掌握,運用到資料分析的做題當中!



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