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  • 學寶教育旗下公務員考試網站
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    浙江省考常識積累:古代科舉制度的興衰
    http://www.hrbjintong.com       2019-05-31      來源:浙江公務員考試網
    【字體: 】              

      科舉制度是中國古代一種選拔人才、官員的制度,創立于隋,完善于唐,鼎盛于明,廢止于清。影響中國歷史長達1300多年。今天浙江公務員考試網(www.hrbjintong.com)小編給大家帶來的常識是科舉制度的興衰,希望考生能夠掌握。


      1.隋朝:南北朝時期,隨著士族門閥的衰落和庶族地主的興起,魏晉以來選官注重門第的九品中正制已無法繼續下去。隋文帝即位以后,廢除九品中正制。隋煬帝大業三年四月,設進士二科,并以“試策”取士。進士其本義為可以進受爵祿之義。當時主要考時務策,叫試策標志著科舉制正式形成。


      2.唐朝:唐太宗、武則天、唐玄宗是創立完善科舉的關鍵人物。


      唐太宗重視人才的培養和選拔,大大擴充了學院的規模,擴建學舍,增加學員。武則天時 “策問貢人于洛成殿”,這是科舉中殿試的開始,但在唐代并沒有形成永制。同時還設立武舉,由兵部主考。考試科目有馬射、步射、平射、馬槍、負重摔跤等。“高第者授以官,其次以類升”。而在唐代最著名的武狀元便是郭子儀了。唐玄宗時,詩賦成為進士科主要的考試內容。他在位期間,曾在長安、洛陽宮殿八次親自面試科舉應試者,錄取很多很有才學的人。


      在唐朝,考試的科目分常科和制科兩類。每年分期舉行的稱常科,由皇帝下詔臨時舉行的考試稱制科。明經、進士兩科便成為唐代常科的主要科目(進士考時務策和詩賦、文章,明經考時務策與經義;前者難,后者易)。


      3.宋代:宋代的科舉,大體同唐代一樣,有常科、制科和武舉,但在形式和內容上都進行了重大的改變。首先,宋代的科舉放寬了錄取和作用的范圍,錄取名額成倍增加;其次,宋代科舉開始實行糊名和謄錄,并建立防止徇私的新方法。(糊名,就是把考生考卷上的姓名、籍貫等密封起來,又稱“彌封”或“封彌”謄錄。考官評閱試卷時,不僅不知道考生的姓名,連考生的字跡也無從辨認這種制度,對于防止主考官徇情取舍的確產生了很大的效力。)


      4.明代:明朝建立,科舉制實行八股取士,能否考中,主要取決于八股文的優劣。所以,一般讀書人往往把畢生精力用在八股文上。八股文以四書、五經中的文句做題目,只能依照題義闡述其中的義理。措詞要用古人語氣,即所謂代圣賢立言。結構有一定程式,字數有一定限制,句法要求對偶。八股文即用八個排偶組成的文章,一般分為六段。以首句破題,兩句承題,然后闡述為什么,謂之起源。八股文的主要部分,是起股、中股、后股、束股四個段落,每個段落各有兩段。篇末用大結,稱復收大結。


      5.清代:19世紀80年代后,隨著西學的傳播和洋務運動的發展,科舉制度發生改變。直到1905年9月2日即光緒31年,袁世凱、張之洞奏請立停科舉,以便推廣學堂,咸趨實學。于是清廷詔準自1906年開始,所有鄉會試一律停止,各省歲科考試亦即停止。從此,在我國延續了1300多年的科舉制正式廢除。


      相關知識


      1.童試


      也叫“童生試”,相當于我們現在的縣級考試。明代由提學官主持、清代由各省學政主持的地方科舉考試,包括縣試、府試和院試三個階段,院試合格后取得生員(秀才)資格,方能進入府、州、縣學學習,所以又叫入學考試。應試者不分年齡大小都稱童生。我們在電視里經常看到的窮秀才就是這一類,因沒有資格做官,所以并沒有什么太高的社會地位。


      2.鄉試


      相當于我們現在的省級考試,生員參加。明清兩代每三年在各省省城(包括京城)舉行的一次考試,因在秋八月舉行,故又稱秋闈。主考官由皇帝委派。考后發布正、副榜,正榜所取的叫舉人,第一名叫解元,第二名至第十名稱“亞元”。


      3.會試


      相當于我們現在的國家級考試,舉人參加。明清兩代每三年在京城舉行的一次考試,因在春季舉行,故又稱春闈。考試由禮部主持,皇帝任命正、副總裁,各省的舉人及國子監監生皆可應考,錄取三百名為貢士,第一名叫會元。


      4.殿試


      也相當于我們現在的國家級考試,貢士參加,目的是對會試合格區別等第,因此一般情況下并不會有淘汰的情況。殿試是皇帝主試的考試,考策問。參加殿試的是貢士,取中后統稱為進士。殿試分三甲錄取。第一甲賜進士及第,第二甲賜進士出身,第三甲賜同進士出身。第一甲錄取三名,第一名俗稱狀元,第二名俗稱榜眼,第三名俗稱探花,合稱為三鼎甲。第二甲第一名俗稱傳臚。


      科舉考試以名列第一者為元,凡在鄉、會、殿三試中連續獲得第一名,被稱為“連中三元”。據統計,歷史上連中三元的至少有十六人。但是我們會發現,一般連中三元者我們不熟悉,反而歷史上很多名落孫山的名士我們會更加熟悉。


      刷題鞏固


      01、我國有很多與科舉相關的成語,其中(   )是形容應試者一定獲得了第一名。


      A.金榜題名


      B.連中三元


      C.蟾宮折桂


      D.名落孫山


      【答案】B


      【解析】B項正確,清代科舉制度,分三級考試,中試者的第一名分別給以“解元”、“會元”、“狀元”的頭街,如應試舉子在三級考試中,連取三個第一名,即所謂“連中三元”。A項“金榜題名”指科舉得中,但不一定是第一名。C項“蟾宮折桂”指攀折月宮桂花,科舉時代比喻應考得中,也不一定是第一名。D項“名落孫山”指考試或選拔未被錄取。


      02、下列關于科舉制度的表述,有誤的是(   )。


      A.鄉試一般在八月舉行,被稱為秋闈


      B.八股文是明清科舉考試的一種文體


      C.殿試制度始于元


      D.范進參加的是鄉試


      【答案】C


      【解析】我國科舉制度源自隋煬帝,隋煬帝開創進士科,到武則天時期開創殿試和武舉(注意此處有爭議,有人說應為唐高宗,但根據最新中學教科書,是將殿試與武舉對應武則天的。明清時期有八股取士,1905 年正式廢科舉,推行現代學校教育。本題考查更細的考點,鄉試、會試、殿試。古代讀書人要考童生試才能成為秀才,才有資格參加鄉試。鄉 試考場在省城,秀才考中就成為舉人(第一稱為解元),舉人可參加會試,成為貢士(第一稱為會元),舉人可參加殿試,考中為進士(第一稱為狀元)。A、B、D 項正確。C 項錯誤,應為唐朝。


      03、科舉是我國古代通過考試選拔官吏的一種制度。假如古代某位考生在參加某級科舉考試中獲得“解元”,即該級考試第一名,那么,他之后通常應參加的更高一級考試是(   )。


      A.鄉試


      B.殿試


      C.會試


      D.童試


      【答案】C


      【解析】本題考査人文歷史常識。明科舉制度正式科舉考試分為童生試、鄉試、會試和殿試,鄉試為省一級考試,考試合格者為舉人,第一名為解元。會試是舉人在京城參加的全國統一考試,考試合格者為貢士,第一名為會元。殿試是由皇帝親自主持的進士考試,分三甲,第一甲三人,第一名叫狀元,第二名叫榜眼,第三名叫探花,賜進士及第。第二甲人數若干,第一名稱傳臚,賜進士出身。第三甲人數最多,賜同進士出身。故選C項。



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